Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)


12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]  
Adoption of ASU Topic 606

On January 1, 2018, we adopted Topic 606 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under Topic 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting under Topic 605.

We recorded a net reduction to opening accumulated deficit of $0.9 million, net of tax, as of January 1, 2018 due to the cumulative impact of adopting Topic 606, with the impact primarily related to deferred revenue on shipments that had not been delivered being recognized upon shipment and deferrals for annual membership fees that are no longer deferred. The impact to revenues and operating income as a result of applying Topic 606 was a increase of $0.2 million and $47,000, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2018.

Revenue Recognition

Net sales include sales of products and shipping and handling charges, net of estimates for product returns and any related sales incentives or rebates based upon historical information and current trends. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring products. All revenue is recognized when we satisfy our performance obligations under the contract. We recognize revenue by transferring the promised products to the customer, with revenue recognized at shipping point, the point in time the customer obtains control of the products. The majority of our contracts have a single performance obligation and are short term in nature. Contracts with multiple performance obligations are insignificant. Sales taxes and value added taxes in foreign jurisdictions that are collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are accounted for on a net basis and therefore are excluded from net sales. Amounts received for unshipped merchandise are recorded as deferred revenue.

A reserve for product returns is recorded based upon historical experience. We allow independent Managers or Distributors to return the unused portion of products within ninety days of purchase if they are not satisfied with the product.  In some of our markets, the requirements to return product are more restrictive. Sales returns for the years 2018, 2017 and 2016, were $1.7 million, $1.6 million, and $1.4 million, respectively.
Amounts billed to customers for shipping and handling are reported as a component of net sales. Shipping and handling revenues of approximately $7.1 million, $8.2 million, and $9.2 million were reported as net sales for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively.

Volume incentives, and other sales incentives or rebates are a significant part of our direct sales marketing program, and represent commission payments made to independent distributors. These payments are designed to provide incentives for reaching higher sales levels. The amount of volume incentive recognized is determined based upon the amount of qualifying purchases in a given month and recorded as volume incentive expense. Payments to independent Managers and Distributors for sales incentives or rebates related to their own purchases are recorded as a reduction of revenue. Payments for sales incentives and rebates are calculated monthly based upon qualifying sales.

Taxes that have been assessed by governmental authorities and that are directly imposed on revenue-producing transactions between us and our customers, including sales, use, value-added, and some excise taxes, are presented on a net basis (excluded from net sales).

Contract Liabilities - Customer Loyalty Programs

We record contract liabilities for loyalty point programs in deferred revenue. These programs are accounted for as a reduction in the transaction price and are generally recognized as points are redeemed for additional products.

The following table presents changes in these contract liability balances for the year ended December 31, 2018 (U.S. dollars in thousands):
Outstanding at December 31, 2017

Increase (decrease) attributed to:
Customer loyalty net deferrals

Customer loyalty redemptions
Outstanding at December 31, 2018

The table above excludes liability for sales returns, as they are insignificant.

Disaggregation of Revenue

Our products are grouped into six principal categories: general health, immune, cardiovascular, digestive, personal care and weight management. We have four business segments that are divided based on the different characteristics of their distributor and customer bases, distributor compensation plans and product formulations. Three business segments operate under the Nature’s Sunshine Products brand and one business segment operates under the Synergy® WorldWide brand. See Note 15, Segment Information, for further information on our reportable segments and our presentation of disaggregated revenue by reportable segment and product category.

Practical Expedients and Exemptions

We have made the accounting policy election to treat shipping and handling as a fulfillment activity rather than a promised service under Topic 606.

We generally expense volume incentives when incurred because the amortization period would have been one year or less.

All of our contracts with customers have a duration of less than one year. The value of any unsatisfied performance obligations is insignificant.