Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2018
Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]  
Revenue Recognition
Revenue Recognition

Adoption of ASU Topic 606

On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Topic 606 using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under Topic 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the Company's historic accounting under Topic 605.

The Company recorded a net reduction to opening accumulated deficit of $0.9 million, net of tax, as of January 1, 2018 due to the cumulative impact of adopting Topic 606, with the impact primarily related to deferred revenue on shipments that had not been delivered being recognized upon shipment and deferrals for annual membership fees that are no longer deferred. The impact to revenues and operating income as a result of applying Topic 606 was a decrease of $0.5 million and $0.2 million, respectively, for the six months ended June 30, 2018.

Revenue Recognition

Net sales include products and shipping and handling charges, net of estimates for product returns and any related sales incentives or rebates based upon historical information and current trends. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring products. All revenue is recognized when the Company satisfies its performance obligations under the contract. The Company recognizes revenue by transferring the promised products to the customer, with revenue recognized at shipping point, the point in time the customer obtains control of the products. The majority of the Company's contracts have a single performance obligation and are short term in nature. Contracts with multiple performance obligations are insignificant. Sales taxes and value added taxes in foreign jurisdictions that are collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are accounted for on a net basis and therefore are excluded from net sales. Amounts received for unshipped merchandise are recorded as deferred revenue.

A reserve for product returns is recorded based upon historical experience and current trends. The Company allows independent Managers or Distributors to return the unused portion of products within ninety days of purchase if they are not satisfied with the product. In some of the Company’s markets, the requirements to return product are more restrictive.

From time to time, the Company’s U.S. operations extend short-term credit associated with product promotions. In addition, for certain of the Company’s international operations, the Company offers credit terms consistent with industry standards within the country of operation.

Volume incentives, and other sales incentives or rebates are a significant part of the Company's direct sales marketing program, and represent commission payments made to independent distributors. These payments are designed to provide incentives for reaching higher sales levels. The amount of volume incentive recognized is determined based upon the amount of qualifying purchases in a given month and recorded as volume incentive expense. Payments to independent Managers and Distributors for sales incentives or rebates related to their own purchases are recorded as a reduction of revenue. Payments for sales incentives and rebates are calculated monthly based upon qualifying sales.

Contract Liabilities - Customer Loyalty Programs

The Company records contract liabilities for loyalty point program in deferred revenue. These programs are accounted for as a reduction in the transaction price and are generally recognized as points are redeemed for additional products.

The following table presents changes in these contract liability balances for the six-month period ended June 30, 2018 (U.S. dollars in thousands):
June 30,
Outstanding at December 31, 2017

Increase (decrease) attributed to:

Customer loyalty net deferrals 

Customer loyalty redemptions 
Outstanding at June 30, 2018

The table above excludes liability for sales returns, as they are insignificant.

Disaggregation of Revenue

The Company’s products are grouped into six principal categories: general health, immune, cardiovascular, digestive, personal care and weight management. The Company has four business segments that are divided based on the different characteristics of their distributor and customer bases, distributor compensation plans and product formulations. three business segments operate under the Nature’s Sunshine Products brand and one business segment operates under the Synergy® WorldWide brand. See Note 8, Segment Information, for further information on the Company’s reportable segments and the Company’s presentation of disaggregated revenue by reportable segment and product category.

Practical Expedients and Exemptions

The Company has made the accounting policy election to treat shipping and handling as a fulfillment activity rather than a promised service under Topic 606.

The Company generally expenses volume incentives when incurred because the amortization period would have been one year or less.

All of the Company’s contracts with customers have a duration of less than one year, the value of any unsatisfied performance obligations is insignificant.