Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)


12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Nature of Operations
We are a natural health and wellness company primarily engaged in the manufacturing and direct selling of nutritional and personal care products. We are a Utah corporation with our principal place of business in Lehi, Utah, and sell our products to a sales force of independent consultants who uses the products themselves or resells them to consumers.
We market our products in Austria, Belarus, Canada, China, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras, Hong Kong, Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, the Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Poland, Russia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, Ukraine and the United States. We also market our products though a wholesale model to Australia, Brazil, Chile, Israel, New Zealand, Norway, Peru and the United Kingdom.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts and transactions of the Company and our subsidiaries. At December 31, 2022 and 2021, substantially all of our subsidiaries were wholly owned. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. We consolidate the joint ventures in Hong Kong and China in our consolidated financial statements, with another party’s interest presented as a noncontrolling interest. Additionally, we operate a limited number of markets in jurisdictions where local laws require the formation of a partnership with an entity domiciled in that market. These partners have no rights to participate in the sharing of revenues, profits, losses or distribution of assets upon liquidation of these partnerships.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, in these financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from these estimates and those differences could have a material effect on our financial position and results of operations.

The significant accounting estimates inherent in the preparation of our financial statements include estimates associated with our determination of liabilities related to independent consultant incentives, the determination of income tax assets and liabilities, certain other non-income tax and value-added tax contingencies, and legal contingencies. In addition, significant estimates form the basis for allowances with respect to inventory valuations. Various assumptions and other factors enter into the determination of these significant estimates. The process of determining significant estimates takes into account historical experience and current and expected economic conditions.

Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid short-term investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Substantially all of our cash deposits either exceed the United States federally insured limit or are located in countries that do not have government insured accounts or are subject to tax withholdings when repatriating earnings.
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable consist principally of receivables from credit card companies, arising from the sale of products to our independent consultants, and receivables from independent consultants in foreign markets. Accounts receivable have been reduced by an allowance for amounts that may be uncollectible in the future. However, due to the geographic dispersion of credit card and independent consultant receivables, the collection risk is not considered to be significant. Substantially all of the receivables from credit card companies were current as of December 31, 2022 and 2021. We maintain an allowance for potential credit losses that is based primarily on the aging category, historical trends and management’s evaluation of the financial condition of account holder. This reserve is adjusted periodically as information about specific accounts becomes available.
Restricted Investment Securities
We have certain restricted investment securities classified as trading securities. We maintain our trading securities portfolio to generate returns that are offset by corresponding changes in certain liabilities related to our deferred compensation plans (see Note 10). The trading securities portfolio consists of marketable securities, which are recorded at fair value and are included in long-term restricted investment securities on the consolidated balance sheets because they remain our assets until they are actually paid out to the participants. These investment securities are not available to us to fund operations as they are restricted for the payment of the deferred compensation payable. We have established a rabbi trust to finance obligations under the plan. Both realized and unrealized gains and losses on trading securities are included in interest and other income.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Our financial instruments, consisting primarily of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, investments, and accounts payable, approximate fair value due to their short-term nature. The carrying value of our debt approximates fair value due to its recent acquisition and short maturity. During the years ended December 31, 2022, and 2021, we did not have any write-offs related to the remeasurement of non-financial assets at fair value on a nonrecurring basis subsequent to their initial recognition.
Inventories are adjusted to lower of cost and net realizable value, using the first-in, first-out method. The components of inventory cost include raw materials, labor and overhead. To estimate any necessary adjustments, various assumptions are made in regard to excess or slow-moving inventories, non-conforming inventories, expiration dates, current and future product demand, production planning and market conditions. If future demand and market conditions are less favorable than management’s assumptions, additional inventory adjustments could be required.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the related assets. Estimated useful lives for buildings range from 20 to 50 years; building improvements range from 7 to 10 years; machinery and equipment range from 2 to 10 years; computer software and hardware range from 3 to 10 years; and furniture and fixtures range from 2 to 5 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful lives of the related assets. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred and major improvements are capitalized.

Other Assets

Other assets include lease deposits, deposits with third-party service providers, intangible assets, and deposits to operate in certain markets.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

We review our long-lived assets, such as property, plant and equipment and intangible assets, for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. If an impairment indicator existed, we would use an estimate of future undiscounted net cash flows of the related assets or groups of assets over their remaining lives in measuring whether the assets were recoverable. An impairment loss would be calculated by determining the difference between the carrying values and the fair values of these assets.
Incentive Trip Accrual
We accrue for expenses associated with our direct sales program, which rewards independent consultants with paid attendance for incentive trips, including our conventions and meetings. Expenses associated with incentive trips are accrued over qualification periods as they are earned. We specifically analyze incentive trip accruals based on historical and current sales trends as well as contractual obligations when evaluating the adequacy of the incentive trip accrual. Actual results could generate liabilities more or less than the amounts recorded. We have accrued convention and meeting costs of $5.8 million and $6.7 million at December 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively, which are included in accrued liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets.
Foreign Currency Translation
The local currency of the foreign subsidiaries is used as the functional currency, except for our operations served by a U.S. based subsidiary (for example, Russia and Ukraine). The financial statements of foreign subsidiaries where the local currency is the functional currency are translated into U.S. dollars using exchange rates in effect at year end for assets and liabilities and average exchange rates during each year for the results of operations. Adjustments resulting from translation of financial statements are reflected in accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of income taxes. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in other income (expense) in the consolidated statements of operations.

The functional currency in highly inflationary economies is the U.S. dollar and transactions denominated in the local currency are re-measured as if the functional currency were the U.S. dollar. The remeasurement of local currencies into U.S. dollars creates translation adjustments, which are included in the consolidated statements of operations. A country is considered to have a highly inflationary economy if it has a cumulative inflation rate of approximately 100 percent or more over a three-year period as well as other qualitative factors including historical inflation rate trends (increasing and decreasing), the capital intensiveness of the operation, and other pertinent economic factors. During the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, we did not operate in any countries considered to be highly inflationary.

Revenue Recognition
Net sales include sales of products and shipping and handling charges, net of estimates for product returns and any related sales incentives or rebates based upon historical information and current trends. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring products. All revenue is recognized when we satisfy our performance obligations under the contract. We recognize revenue by transferring the promised products to the customer, with revenue recognized at the point in time in which the customer obtains control of the products, per the agreed shipping terms in the respective market. Revenue recognition is discussed in further detail in Note 2.
Advertising Costs
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and classified in selling, general and administrative expenses. Advertising expense incurred for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, totaled approximately $11.0 million and $8.2 million, respectively. The increase in advertising costs is due to our calculated effort to build brand awareness.
Research and Development
All research and development costs are expensed as incurred and classified in selling, general and administrative expense. Total research and development expenses were approximately $1.5 million and $1.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
We are involved in certain legal proceedings. When a loss is considered probable in connection with litigation or non-income tax contingencies and when such loss can be reasonably estimated, we record our best estimate within a range related to the contingency. If there is no best estimate, we record the minimum of the range. As additional information becomes available, we assess the liability related to the contingency and revise the estimates. Revisions in estimates of the liabilities could materially affect our results of operations in the period of adjustment. Our contingencies are discussed in further detail in Note 11.
Income Taxes
Our income tax expense includes amounts related to the United States and many foreign jurisdictions and is comprised of current year income taxes payable, changes in our deferred tax assets and liabilities and contingent reserves.

Deferred income taxes arise from temporary differences between the tax and financial statement recognition of revenue and expense. Deferred tax assets are offset by a valuation allowance if it is believed to be more likely than not that some portion of the deferred tax asset will not be fully realized. In evaluating our ability to recover our deferred tax assets, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, tax planning strategies and recent financial operations. In projecting future taxable income, we develop assumptions including the amount of future state, federal and foreign pretax operating income, the reversal of temporary differences, and the implementation of feasible and prudent tax planning strategies. These assumptions require significant judgment about the forecasts of future taxable income and are consistent with the plans and estimates we are using to manage the underlying businesses.

The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions across our global operations. Income tax positions must meet a more-likely-than-not recognition threshold to be recognized.

Net Income Per Common Share
Basic net income per common share (“Basic EPS”) is computed by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per common share (“Diluted EPS”) reflects the potential dilution that could occur if stock options or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock. The computation of Diluted EPS does not assume exercise or conversion of securities that would have an anti-dilutive effect on net income per common share.

The following is a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of Basic EPS to the numerator and denominator of Diluted EPS for all years (dollar and share amounts in thousands, except for per share information):
  2022 2021
Net income (loss) attributable to common shareholders:    
Net income (loss) $ (390) $ 28,853 
Basic weighted-average shares outstanding 19,326  19,858 
Basic earnings (loss) per share attributable to common shareholders:    
Net income (loss) $ (0.02) $ 1.45 
Diluted Shares Outstanding:    
Basic weighted-average shares outstanding 19,326  19,858 
Share-based awards   469 
Diluted weighted-average shares outstanding 19,326  20,327 
Diluted earnings (loss) per share attributable to common shareholders:    
Net income (loss) $ (0.02) $ 1.42 
Potentially dilutive shares excluded from diluted-per-share amounts:    
Share-based awards   425 
Potentially anti-dilutive shares excluded from diluted-per-share amounts:
Share-based awards 1,234  (1) — 
(1) As a result of the net loss for year ended December 31, 2022, no potentially dilutive securities are included in the calculation of diluted loss per share because such effect would be anti-dilutive. Potentially dilutive securities for the year ended December 31, 2022 include 143 outstanding options to purchase shares of common stock and 1,091 restricted stock units.

For the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, potentially dilutive shares excluded from diluted-per-share amounts include performance-based restricted stock units (“RSU”), for which certain metrics have not been achieved. Potentially anti-dilutive shares excluded from diluted-per-share amounts include both non-qualified stock options and unearned performance-based options to purchase shares of common stock with exercise prices greater than the weighted-average share price during the period and shares that would be anti-dilutive to the computation of diluted net income per share for each of the years presented.
Share-Based Compensation
Our outstanding stock options include time-based stock options, which vest over differing periods ranging from the date of issuance up to 48 months from the option grant date.

Our outstanding RSUs include time-based RSUs, which vest over differing periods ranging from 12 months up to 36 months from the RSU grant date, as well as performance-based RSUs, which vest upon achieving targets relating to EBITDA growth, and/or stock price levels. RSUs granted to the Board of Directors contain a restriction period in which the shares are not issued until two years after vesting.
We recognize all share-based payments to Directors and employees, including grants of stock options and RSUs, in the statement of operations based on their grant-date fair values. We record compensation expense over the vesting period of the stock options and RSUs based on the fair value of the stock options and RSUs on the date of grant.

Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) includes all changes in shareholders’ equity except those resulting from investments by, and distributions to, shareholders. Accordingly, our comprehensive income (loss) includes net income and foreign currency adjustments that arise from the translation of the financial statements of our foreign subsidiaries.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting. This ASU provides optional guidance for a limited period of time to ease the potential burden in accounting for (or recognizing the effects of) reference rate reform on financial reporting. The amendments in this update are elective and subject to meeting certain criteria, that have contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform. This could affect balances of right of use assets, lease liabilities, and notes payables. The amendments in this update are effective as of March 12, 2020 through December 21, 2022. The adoption of this ASU is not expected to have a significant impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.